toroidal (adj): in the shape of a torus; donut-shaped. tor-oid-al. From the Cosmology episode of Ologies.
monomial (adj): an algebraic expression consisting of one term, the atomic unit of which polynomials are made. Contrasted with a binomial, trinomial, etc. Variant: mononomial. Unclear whether the -al is actually separable; the OED lists the etyma as mono– ‘one’ and nomial. Came up in a discussion of this shader; calculating the distance to an ellipse requires solving a 4th-degree equation (quartic polynomial); the solution allows the polynomial to be simplified into the product of a set of monomials.
galaxial (adj): Having to do with a galaxy. Galaxy-al. From Ologies.